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Volha I Summerhill, Donato Moschetta, Alexander N Orekhov, Paolo Poggio, Veronika A Myasoedova

Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Aug 6;21(16):E5620. doi: 10.3390/ijms21165620.


Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common valvular heart disease in developed countries predominantly affecting the elderly population therefore posing a large economic burden. It is a gradually progressive condition ranging from mild valve calcification and thickening, without the hemodynamic obstruction, to severe calcification impairing leaflet motion, known as aortic stenosis (AS). The progression of CAVD occurs over many years, and it is extremely variable among individuals. It is also associated with an increased risk of coronary events and mortality. The recent insights into the CAVD pathophysiology included an important role of sex. Accumulating evidence suggests that, in patients with CAVD, sex can determine important differences in the relationship between valvular calcification process, fibrosis, and aortic stenosis hemodynamic severity between men and women. Consequently, it has implications on the development of different valvular phenotypes, left ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular outcomes in men and women. Along these lines, taking into account the sex-related differences in diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment outcomes is of profound importance. In this review, the sex-related differences in patients with CAVD, in terms of pathobiology, clinical phenotypes, and outcomes were discussed.


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