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Siarhei A Dabravolski 1, Varvara A Orekhova, Mirza S Baig, Evgeny E Bezsonov, Antonina V Starodubova, Tatyana V Popkova, Alexander N Orekhov

Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jun 23;22(13):6733. doi: 10.3390/ijms22136733.


Diabetes mellitus and related disorders significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the advances in the current therapeutic methods, further development of anti-diabetic therapies is necessary. Mitochondrial dysfunction is known to be implicated in diabetes development. Moreover, specific types of mitochondrial diabetes have been discovered, such as MIDD (maternally inherited diabetes and deafness) and DAD (diabetes and Deafness). Hereditary mitochondrial disorders are caused by certain mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which encodes for a substantial part of mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial tRNA necessary for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Study of mtDNA mutations is challenging because the pathogenic phenotype associated with such mutations depends on the level of its heteroplasmy (proportion of mtDNA copies carrying the mutation) and can be tissue-specific. Nevertheless, modern sequencing methods have allowed describing and characterizing a number of mtDNA mutations associated with human disorders, and the list is constantly growing. In this review, we provide a list of mtDNA mutations associated with diabetes and related disorders and discuss the mechanisms of their involvement in the pathology development.


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