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Kundan Solanki, Sajjan Rajpoot, Evgeny E Bezsonov, Alexander N Orekhov, Rohit Saluja, Anita Wary, Cassondra Axen, Kishore Wary, Mirza S Baig

PeerJ. 2022 Jul 7;10:e13651. doi: 10.7717/peerj.13651. eCollection 2022.


The nitric oxide synthases (NOS; EC use L-arginine as a substrate to produce nitric oxide (NO) as a by-product in the tissue microenvironment. NOS1 represents the predominant NO-producing enzyme highly enriched in the brain and known to mediate multiple functions, ranging from learning and memory development to maintaining synaptic plasticity and neuronal development, Alzheimer's disease (AD), psychiatric disorders and behavioral deficits. However, accumulating evidence indicate both canonical and non-canonical roles of NOS1-derived NO in several other tissues and chronic diseases. A better understanding of NOS1-derived NO signaling, and identification and characterization of NO-metabolites in non-neuronal tissues could become useful in diagnosis and prognosis of diseases associated with NOS1 expression. Continued investigation on the roles of NOS1, therefore, will synthesize new knowledge and aid in the discovery of small molecules which could be used to titrate the activities of NOS1-derived NO signaling and NO-metabolites. Here, we address the significance of NOS1 and its byproduct NO in modifying pathophysiological events, which could be beneficial in understanding both the disease mechanisms and therapeutics.


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