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Poznyak AVWu WKMelnichenko AAWetzker RSukhorukov VMarkin AMKhotina VAOrekhov AN.

Cells. 2020 Mar 1;9(3). pii: E584. doi: 10.3390/cells9030584


Atherosclerosis is associated with acute cardiovascular conditions, such as ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke, and is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Our understanding of atherosclerosis and the processes triggering its initiation is constantly improving, and, during the last few decades, many pathological processes related to this disease have been investigated in detail. For example, atherosclerosis has been considered to be a chronic inflammation triggered by the injury of the arterial wall. However, recent works showed that atherogenesis is a more complex process involving not only the immune system, but also resident cells of the vessel wall, genetic factors, altered hemodynamics, and changes in lipid metabolism. In this review, we focus on foam cells that are crucial for atherosclerosis lesion formation. It has been demonstrated that the formation of foam cells is induced by modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The beneficial effects of the majority of therapeutic strategies with generalized action, such as the use of anti-inflammatory drugs or antioxidants, were not confirmed by clinical studies. However, the experimental therapies targeting certain stages of atherosclerosis, among which are lipid accumulation, were shown to be more effective. This emphasizes the relevance of future detailed investigation of atherogenesis and the importance of new therapies development.



CVD; LDL; atherosclerosis; foam cells; modified LDL


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