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Orekhov AN, Nikiforov NN, Ivanova EA, Sobenin IA.

J Clin Med. 2020 Apr 1;9(4). pii: E978. doi: 10.3390/jcm9040978.


Chronification of inflammation is the process that lies at the basis of several human diseases that make up to 80% of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It can also explain a great deal of processes related to aging. Atherosclerosis is an example of the most important chronic inflammatory pathology in terms of public health impact. Atherogenesis is based on the inflammatory response of the innate immunity arising locally or focally. The main trigger for this response appears to be modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), although other factors may also play a role. With the quick resolution of inflammation, atherosclerotic changes in the arterial wall do not occur. However, a violation of the innate immunity response can lead to chronification of local inflammation and, as a result, to atherosclerotic lesion formation. In this review, we discuss possible mechanisms of the impaired immune response with a special focus on mitochondrial dysfunction. Some mitochondrial dysfunctions may be due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Several mitochondrial DNA mutations leading to defective mitophagy have been identified. The regulatory role of mitophagy in the immune response has been shown in recent studies. We suggest that defective mitophagy promoted by mutations in mitochondrial DNA can cause innate immunity disorders leading to chronification of inflammation.



atherosclerosis; chronification of inflammation; defective mitophagy; innate immunity; mitochondrial dysfunction; modified LDL


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