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Anastasia V Poznyak, Larisa Litvinova, Paolo Poggio, Donato Moschetta, Vasily Nikolaevich Sukhorukov, Alexander N Orekhov

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Aug 27;23(17):9738. doi: 10.3390/ijms23179738.


Atherosclerosis is a common cause of cardiovascular disease, which, in turn, is often fatal. Today, we know a lot about the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the main knowledge is that the disease is extremely complicated. The development of atherosclerosis is associated with more than one molecular mechanism, each making a significant contribution. These mechanisms include endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism disorders. This complexity inevitably leads to difficulties in treatment and prevention. One of the possible therapeutic options for atherosclerosis and its consequences may be metformin, which has already proven itself in the treatment of diabetes. Both diabetes and atherosclerosis are complex metabolic diseases, the pathogenesis of which involves many different mechanisms, including those common to both diseases. This makes metformin a suitable candidate for investigating its efficacy in cardiovascular disease. In this review, we highlight aspects such as the mechanisms of action and targets of metformin, in addition to summarizing the available data from clinical trials on the effective reduction of cardiovascular risks.


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