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Anastasia V Poznyak, Dmitry A Kashirskikh, Vasily N Sukhorukov, Vladislav Kalmykov, Andrey V Omelchenko, Alexander N Orekhov

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Jan 25;23(3):1332. doi: 10.3390/ijms23031332.


Atherosclerosis is the cause of the development of serious cardiovascular disorders, leading to disability and death. Numerous processes are involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and lipid metabolism disorders. Reverse transport of cholesterol is a mechanism presumably underlying the atheroprotective effect of high-density lipoprotein. In this review, we examined disorders of cholesterol metabolism and their possible effect on atherogenesis. We paid special attention to the reverse transport of cholesterol. Transformed cholesterol metabolism results in dyslipidemia and early atherosclerosis. Reverse cholesterol transport is an endogenous mechanism by which cells export cholesterol and maintain homeostasis. It is known that one of the main factors leading to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of blood vessels are multiple modifications of low-density lipoprotein, and the formation of foam cells following them.


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