Nikolic D, Castellino G, Banach M, Toth PP, Ivanova E, Orekhov AN, Montalto G, Rizzo M.
Curr Pharm Des. 2016 Oct 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are implicated in the pathology of several metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis. PPAR agonists exert multiple lipid modifying actions which are beneficial to the prevention of atherosclerosis. Such benefits in lipid lowering actions include improvements in atherogenic dyslipidemia that seems to be particularly expressed in individuals at higher cardiovascular (CV) risk. In addition, the favorable effects of PPAR agonists on different cardio-metabolic parameters are established in several metabolic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and heightened systemic inflammation. The goal of this review is to summarize the current evidence on PPAR agonists and their effects on atherogenic dyslipidemia and CV risk. The main findings indicate that PPAR agonists improve not only the lipid profile, but also lipoprotein subfractions associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia and other CV markers. However, future prospective studies are required to establish the long-term effects of such therapies on atherogenic lipoproteins and their benefit on CV outcomes.