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Chistiakov DA, Myasoedova VA, Grechko AV, Melnichenko AA, Orekhov AN.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2018 Jan 19. pii: S1044-579X(17)30288-2. doi: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2018.01.012. [Epub ahead of print]


The diagnostics and management of localized prostate cancer is complicated because of cancer heterogeneity and differentiated progression in various subgroups of patients. As a prostate cancer biomarker, FDA-approved detection assay for serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) and its derivatives are not potent enough to diagnose prostate cancer, especially high-grade disease (Gleason ≥7). To date, a collection of new biomarkers was developed. Some of these markers are superior for primary screening while others are particularly helpful for cancer risk stratification, detection of high-grade cancer, and prediction of adverse events. Two of those markers such as proPSA (a part of the Prostate Health Index (PHI)) and prostate specific antigen 3 (PCA3) (a part of the PCA3 Progensa test) were recently approved by FDA for clinical use. Other markers are not PDA-approved yet but are available from Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendment (CLIA)-certified clinical laboratories. In this review, we characterize diagnostic performance of these markers and their diagnostic and prognostic utility for prostate cancer.


biomarker; diagnosis; prognosis; prostate cancer; prostate specific antigen