Chistiakov DA, Orekhov AN, Bobryshev YV.
Curr Pharm Des. 2016 Feb 3. [Epub ahead of print]
Multiple pathogenic mechanisms contribute to the development of colorectal cancer. This tumor is characterized by high chemoresistance and low immunogenicity due to the effective mechanisms of immunosuppression. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in recognition of tumor antigens and induction of T-cell-primed anti-cancer response. However, in cancer microenvironment, the function of tumor-infiltrating DCs becomes impaired and switched from the immunostimulation to the immunosuppression. Colorectal cancer cells express anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β that could affect DC phenotype and support tumor escape from the immune surveillance. As a result, tumor-associated DCs display numerous defects in antigen-presenting capacity and have an altered pattern of expression of immune costimulatory molecules towards the immunoregulatory phenotype. Indeed, understanding of mechanisms, such as how tumor could impair activity of DCs, would help in the development of new DC-based vaccines against colorectal cancer.