Chistiakov DA, Orekhov AN, Bobryshev YV
Lab Invest. 2016 May 16. doi: 10.1038/labinvest.2016.56. [Epub ahead of print]
Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) is a main protein moiety in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Generally, ApoA1 and HDL are considered as atheroprotective. In prooxidant and inflammatory microenvironment in the vicinity to the atherosclerotic lesion, ApoA1/HDL are subjected to modification. The chemical modifications such as oxidation, nitration, etc result in altering native architecture of ApoA1 toward dysfunctionality and abnormality. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase has a prominent role in this mechanism. Neo-epitopes could be formed and then exposed that makes them immunogenic. Indeed, these epitopes may be recognized by immune cells and induce production of proatherogenic ApoA1-specific IgG antibodies. These antibodies are biologically relevant because they are able to react with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR4 in target cells and induce a variety of pro-inflammatory responses. Epidemiological and functional studies underline a prognostic value of ApoA1 self-antibodies for several cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, and severe carotid stenosis.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 16 May 2016; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2016.56.