Ivanova EA, Orekhov AN.
Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:327470. doi: 10.1155/2015/327470. Epub 2015 Oct 25.
In response to cytokine signalling and other factors, CD4-positive T lymphocytes differentiate into distinct populations that are characterized by the production of certain cytokines and are controlled by different master transcription factors. The spectrum of such populations, which was initially limited to Th1 and Th2 subsets, is currently broadened to include Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as a number of less studied subtypes, such as Tfh, Th9, and Th22. Although these subsets appear to be relatively stable, certain plasticity exists that allows for transition between the subsets and formation of hybrid transition forms. This provides the immune system flexibility needed for adequate response to pathogens but, at the same time, can play a role in the pathogenic processes in cases of deregulation. In this review, we will discuss the properties of T lymphocyte subsets and their plasticity, as well as its implications for cancer and autoimmune diseases.