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Ivanova EA, Bobryshev YV, Orekhov AN.
Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2015 Aug 28;11:525-32. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S74697. eCollection 2015.


High cardiovascular risk conditions are frequently associated with altered plasma lipoprotein profile, such as elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and LDL cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein. There is, however, accumulating evidence that specific subclasses of LDL may play an important role in cardiovascular disease development, and their relative concentration can be regarded as a more relevant risk factor. LDL particles undergo multiple modifications in plasma that can lead to the increase of their negative charge. The resulting electronegative LDL [LDL(-)] subfraction has been demonstrated to be especially atherogenic, and became a subject of numerous recent studies. In this review, we discuss the physicochemical properties of LDL(-), methods of its detection, atherogenic activity, and relevance of the LDL electronegativity index as a potential independent predictor of cardiovascular risk.


LDL; LDL electronegativity index; atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; low-density lipoprotein


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