Chistiakov DA, Sobenin IA, Orekhov AN.
Drug Deliv. 2012 Nov;19(8):392-405. doi: 10.3109/10717544.2012.738436.
Context: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important and powerful mediators in a variety of diseases including cardiovascular pathology. Thus, they emerged as interesting new drug targets. However, it is important to develop efficient transfer tools to successfully deliver miRNAs or antisense oligonucleotides (antagomirs) to the target tissue. Objective: The aim of this study was to review the scientific literature on delivery techniques currently used for transfer of miRNAs and antagomirs to animal models of cardiovascular disease and those that are likely to be used for therapeutic miRNA transport in the nearest future. Methods: The research was carried out by consulting the following medical websites: Medicus Medline Index, PubMed (National Library of Medicine), and a registry database of clinical trials conducted in USA ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ). The selection gathers articles written in English, published from January 2012. Results: A current delivery technique includes chemical modification of antagomirs with 2-O-methyl-group or 2-O-methyoxyethyl or using locked nucleic acids to increase drug stability and affinity. Development of miRNA sponges/decoys aims to target all members of a miRNA seed family of interest. A further strategy to augment miRNA levels is to use miRNA delivery through viral-based vectors including adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, and lentiviruses. To date, a variety of nanocarriers is available for efficient delivery of miRNAs. Microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies that contain circulating miRNAs could be also used as therapeutic transport systems in the nearest future. Conclusion: Development of new miRNA carrier systems with advanced properties and large animal data in the cardiovascular field is highly recommended.