Orekhov AN, Sobenin IA, Korneev NV, Kirichenko TV, Myasoedova VA, Melnichenko AA, Balcells M, Edelman ER, Bobryshev YV.
Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov. 2012 Nov 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Natural products including botanicals for both therapy of clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis and reduction of atherosclerosis risk factors are topics of recent patents. Only a few recent patents are relevant to the direct anti-atherosclerotic therapy leading to regression of atherosclerotic lesions. Earlier, using a cellular model we have developed and patented several anti-atherosclerotic drugs. The AMAR (Atherosclerosis Monitoring and Atherogenicity Reduction) study was designed to estimate the effect of two-year treatment with time-released garlic-based drug Allicor on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in 196 asymptomatic men aged 40-74 in double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized clinical study. The primary outcome was the rate of atherosclerosis progression, measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography as the increase in carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) of the far wall of common carotid arteries. The mean rate of IMT changes in Allicor-treated group (-0.022±0.007 mm per year) was significantly different (P=0.002) from the placebo group in which there was a moderate progression of 0.015±0.008 mm at the overall mean baseline IMT of 0.931±0.009 mm. A significant correlation was found between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity (the ability of serum to induce cholesterol accumulation in cultured cells) during the study and the changes in intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (r=0.144, P=0.045). Thus, the results of AMAR study demonstrate that long-term treatment with Allicor has a direct anti-atherosclerotic effect on carotid atherosclerosis and this effect is likely to be due to serum atherogenicity inhibition. The beneficial effects of other botanicals including Inflaminat (calendula, elder and violet), phytoestrogen-rich Karinat (garlic powder, extract of grape seeds, green tea leafs, hop cones, β-carotene, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid) on atherosclerosis have also been revealed in clinical studies which enforces a view that botanicals might represent promising drugs for anti-atherosclerotic therapy.