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Sahakyan H1,2, Hooshiar Kashani B3, Tamang R4, Kushniarevich A1,5, Francis A6, Costa MD7,8, Pathak AK1,9, Khachatryan Z2, Sharma I10, van Oven M11, Parik J1,9, Hovhannisyan H2,12, Metspalu E1,9, Pennarun E1, Karmin M1, Tamm E1,9, Tambets K1, Bahmanimehr A2, Reisberg T1,9, Reidla M1,9, Achilli A3, Olivieri A3, Gandini F3, Perego UA3, Al-Zahery N3, Houshmand M13, Sanati MH13, Soares P8,14, Rai E10, Šarac J1,15, Šarić T1,15, Sharma V10, Pereira L8,16, Fernandes V7,8,16, Černý V17, Farjadian S18, Singh DP6, Azakli H19, Üstek D20, Ekomasova Trofimova N1,21,22, Kutuev I1,21, Litvinov S1,21, Bermisheva M21, Khusnutdinova EK21,22, Rai N6, Singh M6, Singh VK6, Reddy AG6, Tolk HV1, Cvjetan S15,23,24, Lauc LB15,25, Rudan P15,26, Michalodimitrakis EN27, Anagnou NP28,29, Pappa KI29,30, Golubenko MV31, Orekhov V32, Borinskaya SA32, Kaldma K1, Schauer MA33, Simionescu M33, Gusar V34, Grechanina E34, Govindaraj P6, Voevoda M35,36,37, Damba L35, Sharma S10, Singh L6, Semino O3, Behar DM1,38, Yepiskoposyan L2, Richards MB7,39, Metspalu M1, Kivisild T1,9,40, Thangaraj K6, Endicott P41, Chaubey G1, Torroni A3, Villems R1,9,42.

Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 7;7:46044. doi: 10.1038/srep46044.

Abstract

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup U is among the initial maternal founders in Southwest Asia and Europe and one that best indicates matrilineal genetic continuity between late Pleistocene hunter-gatherer groups and present-day populations of Europe. While most haplogroup U subclades are older than 30 thousand years, the comparatively recent coalescence time of the extant variation of haplogroup U7 (~16-19 thousand years ago) suggests that its current distribution is the consequence of more recent dispersal events, despite its wide geographical range across Europe, the Near East and South Asia. Here we report 267 new U7 mitogenomes that - analysed alongside 100 published ones - enable us to discern at least two distinct temporal phases of dispersal, both of which most likely emanated from the Near East. The earlier one began prior to the Holocene (~11.5 thousand years ago) towards South Asia, while the later dispersal took place more recently towards Mediterranean Europe during the Neolithic (~8 thousand years ago). These findings imply that the carriers of haplogroup U7 spread to South Asia and Europe before the suggested Bronze Age expansion of Indo-European languages from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region.

 

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